How do I know our collective travel literacy is lacking? I run a nonprofit consumer advocacy organization that helps travelers every day. This summer, our caseload spiked to levels I'd never seen — hundreds of complaints a week, if not more.

Most were the result of misunderstandings — people who wanted refunds on nonrefundable airline tickets or to be let off the hook for damage to their rental cars. No, Americans aren't the world's savviest travelers. Less than half of us have passports.

Travel literacy falls into two broad categories: understanding how the travel industry works, with its often arcane rules and restrictions; and being aware of other cultures and customs. One is easy to overcome; the other isn't.

I'll start with the first one. At least 95 percent of it is reading the rules — all of them. A vast majority of misunderstandings with airlines, hotels, and cruise lines end with travelers acknowledging that they failed to review the terms of their purchase. That's how they ended up with a nonrefundable hotel room or a restrictive timeshare.

Most of the remaining 5 percent is fixable with real-world experience.    The more you travel, the more you understand how the system works. It's not something you can learn in a classroom. (Less than 1 percent of the problems involved truly intractable issues that need a professional advocate — and that's what I do.)

People who claim they can teach you the ins and outs of the travel industry and make you more travel-literate with a simple course are probably exaggerating. It's true that you can pick up valuable skills on travel safety through a course like  Depart Smart or learn more about optimizing your loyalty programs by attending Frequent Traveler University. But there's no substitute for being there.

So let's talk about achieving the second part of travel literacy — looking more like a citizen of the world than someone who's never crossed a county line.

  • Read a book. The right travel book can educate, inspire, and enlighten. "Good writing helps me to look at my surroundings with new eyes," says Martha Merritt, dean of international education at the University of Richmond. Among her favorites: Notes From a Small Island by Bill Bryson and  The Art of Travel  by Alain de Botton. A book about travel is not necessarily a travel guidebook. It can be a book — fiction or nonfiction — about a place.
  • Find your affinity group on social media. That's what Tiffany Burnette, who runs a design firm in Philadelphia, does between trips. She spends time on Facebook travel groups connecting with new friends and learning new travel skills. Among her favorites: GoWonder's Female Solo Travel/Women Group Travel page and Weekend Wanderlust. "Many of them are specifically for women travelers, with tons of incredible advice in those groups," she says.
  • Watch a movie or documentary. "While some movies can have gross misrepresentations of cultures and people, there are still an incredible amount of quality films and documentaries that give an authentic sense of place, context and history to wherever your travels may lead next," says Ashley Blake, founder of Traverse Journeys. She cites the 10-part PBS documentary The Vietnam War by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick as an example. The series, she says, "took a deep dive into the complexities of a place to help you appreciate the culture and perspective you'll encounter while there."
  • Learn a language. An app like Duolingo is a great way to brush up on your language skills before you travel. "I spend 15 to 20 minutes each day working on my basic language skills so that I can at least do the minimum to show respect," says Jeff Wilson, the host of Real Rail Adventures on PBS. "Phrases like please [and] thank you, counting, and asking basic travel questions." He also likes virtual language immersion sites such as News in Slow Spanish, which helps you learn a second language through current events.
  • Take a virtual trip. Vanessa Valiente, a San Diego fashion consultant, downloads maps of her destination on her phone. "I like to study them to get to know the area before arriving," she says. "I also download the top-rated transit apps of my destination. While planning my trip, I plug in the main addresses I will be using, like the airport to my hotel … and save them to the maps app." London has several free tube apps, including the London Tube map. Paris does, too.

While these tools could make you a smarter traveler, only one thing is guaranteed to improve your travel literacy. You have to get out of your seat.

If you're a novice, start with a guided tour. Visit a travel agent, or select a tour operator from the United States Tour Operators Association website. A competent tour operator can handle everything from hotel reservations to meals, so you can experience a destination relatively worry-free.

But there's no substitute for on-the-ground travel experience, and there's only one way to get it. You have to be there. Are you ready?